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11 houses, 11 kinds of Dainyayoga (yoga of misery) are formed. If the lord of the 6th does it with the lord of any one of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 1 1 houses, ten.

But back to Professor Lattimore. Here is the beginning of the account of the hunt on Parnassos where Odysseus was scarred by the boar: But when the young Dawn showed again with h er rosy fingers, they went out on their way to the h unt, the dogs and the people, these sons of Autolykos, and with them noble Odysseus went. Is it not a bit chewing-gummy to say that Dawn showed?

Johnson gives ten definitions of "show," none of which sanctions this suppressed reflexive, and Fowler clucks his tongue if consulted on the m atter. Sincl ai r: " I ' m glad you showed, kid. As for the "went," that's where Homer put it. And dear rosy-fingered Dawn, she turns up in The Faerie Queene about the time Chapman was putting her into his Iliads; it's a toss-up as to who stole her from whom.

She is the Kilroy of Homeric translation. Professor Lattimore continues: They came to the steep mountai n , m antled in forest, Parnassos, and soon they were up in the windy fol ds. Colonel Lawrence has "wind-swept upper folds" ; Morris, "windy ghylls.

The hunters came to the wooded valley, and on ahead of them ran the dogs, casting about for the tracks, and behi nd the m t h e sons of Autolykos, and with t h e m n o b l e Odysseus went close behind th e hou nds, shaking his spea r far-shadowing. Now there, inside that thick of the bush, was the lair of a great boar.

Neither could the force of wet-blown winds penetrate h ere, nor could the shi ning sun ever strike through with his rays, nor yet could th e rain pass all the way through it, so close together it grew , with a fall of leaves drifted in dense profusion. The thudding made by the feet of me. Surely Homer meant to describe a calm sea, not to calcu- Another Odyssey 33 late the amount of noise it was making. Why "noble" Odysseus? He is no nobler than his uncles, and to single him out with such a word seems to put him in contrast to his very family. He's a stripling here ; surely Homer means "charming" or "handsome.

His boar " bristled strongly his nape, and with fire from his eyes glaring I stood up to face them close. The very same words might be used of a cat, and we would h ave to trans. He hackles. He burrs up.


Fitzgerald has: with razor b a c k bristling a n d raging eyes he trotted and stood at bay. Splendid, that "trotted and stood. Here is how Mr. Fitzgerald begins the boar hunt: When the young Dawn spread in th e eastern sky her finger tips of rose, Both Ch apman and Pope ducked having to do something with a rhododaktylos Eos here, Ch apman looking to the sun's heat and Pope to its color for a paraphrase. Ch apman knows his out-of-doors, and h as not forgotten th at the hunters h ave j ust spent the night on the ground; Pope saw the dawn through windows ; Fitzgerald, w riting in a century whose every gestu re is timed, adds motion to the venerable epithet.

Odysseus loses his dios, and the sons of Autolykos their p atronymic: no matter-that information is well-established," and Mr. Fitzgerald doesn't need formulae. They climbed Parnassos' rugged tl ank mantled in forest, Pope's "Parnassus, thick-perplex'd with horrid shades" has alternately an English and a Latin word: what we are looking at is a line of Vergil 34 Th e Geography of the I magination every other word of which has been glossed into English.

Homer, we might note, is at some distance, and his more cultivated imitator has the stage. The "amid" is not current English; "fold" is not good American, but British [Lawrence: "wind-swept upper folds"]; and is it at noon or just a fter sunrise that they reach the high gorges? The "winding" is taken from Homeric cosmography rather than from the text, which says "deep. Bryant's ". The sun, new risen I From the deep ocean's gently flowing stream, I Now smote the fields" misses the look of a great mountain, tries [like Fitzgerald] to tuck in Homer's earth-encircling ocean and makes a mess of it-the kind of paralytic total miss with an image that drives clever children and the literal-minded away from poetry altogether.

Yet genteel readers in Bryant's day took that "stream" as a refinement, and the "gently," their experience of the sea to the contrary, as evidence of Bryant's higher soul. The version reaches solid ground with the Biblical "smote.

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Fitzgerald deploys dogs and hunters in a forward motion: "questing ahead. Translation involves two languages; the translator is in constant danger of inventing a third that lies between, a treacherous nonexistent language suggested by the original and not recognized by the language into which the original is being transposed. The Greek says "of Odysseus the loved son," and Professor Lattimore translates "the dear son of Odysseus.

Chapman's "Ulysses' lov' d sonne" seems more contemporary. He spoke a charming and fluent and even racy colloquial English. And why "hands"? The Greek is "hand. It uses the vocabulary of English but not its rhythm. It has its own idiom. One can say in this language such things as "slept in that place in an exhaustion of sleep" for Homer's "aching with fatigue and weary for lack of sleep" , and "the shining clothes are lying away uncared for" for "your laundry is tossed in a heap waiting to be washed". Professor Lattimore adheres to the literal at times as stubbornly as a mule eating briars.

When, for instance, the Kyklops dines on Odysseus's men, he washes his meal down with "milk unmixed with water. The word that makes the milk seem to be watered is the same as the one that turns up in the phrase "unmixed wine," meaning neat. But even there the wine is unmixed because it is for dipping bread into; so the word comes to take on the latter meaning.

What the homely Kyklops was doing was dipping the meat in his milk. There is a chill puritanism about Professor Lattimore' s program: which is to render the Odyssey ad verbum into English. Tone be damned, rhythm and pace be damned, idiom like the milk for dunking be damned; this version is going to be punctiliously lexicographic. Look a. Lattimore: The goddess spoke so, and set down the armour on the ground before Ach i lleus, and all its ela borations clashed loudly. Trem bling took hold of a l l the Myrmidons.

None had the courage to look straight at it. They were afraid of it. Only Achilleus T h e Geogra p h y o f the Imagi n ation 36 Another Odvsscy looked, and as he looked the anger came harder upon him Then found they lod g' d a Bore of bulke extreame and his eyes glittered terribly under his lids, like suntlare.

In such a Queach, as never an y beame 37 The Sun shot pierc'st, nor any passe let finde -me moist impressions o f the fiercest winde, Logue: And as she laid the moonlit armour on the sand it chimed: and the sounds that came from it followed the light that came from it, like sighing, saymg, Made in Heaven. And those who had the neck to watch Achilles weep could not look now. Nobody looked. They were afraid.

Excep t Achilles. Looked, lifted a piece of it between his hand; turned it; tested the weight of it; then, spun the holy tungsten like a star between his knees, slitting h is eyes against the flare, some sa id , b u t others thought the hatred shuttered b y his lids made him protect the metal.

His eyes like furnace doors ajar. We have all been taught to prefer the former, out of a shy dread before Homer's great original; we instinctively, i f we have ever felt a line of poetry before, prefer the l atter. And the kind of paranoia fostered by graduate schools would choose to have Professor Lattimore give his imagination more tether and Mr. Logue rein his in, so that we could be certain that it' s all Homer that we are enjoying.

Chapman translates the tale of the boar: When the Sun was set Nor any storme the sternest winter drives, Such proofe it was: yet all within lay leaves In mighry thicknesse, and through all this flew The hounds' loud mouthes. The sounds, the tumult threw. And all together rouz'd the Bore, that rusht Amongs t their thickest: all h is brissels pusht From forth his rough necke, and with fl aming eyes Stood close, and dar'd all. There were still queaches near Hitchin in Chapman's day from which the more sanguine gentry might rout a boar.

William Cullen Bryant, the Henri Rousseau of Homer's translators, has the hunt unfold at a genteel pace: Up the steeps of that high mount Pamassus, clothed with woods, they climbed, and soon Were on its airy heights. The sun, new risen From the deep ocean's gently flowing stream, Now smote the fields. The h unters reached a dell; The hounds before them tracked the game; behind Followed the children of Autolycus. And darknesse rose, they slept, till daye's fire her The generous youth Ulysses, brandishing Th'enlightned earth, and then on hunting went A spear of mightly length, came pressing on Both Hounds and all Autolycus' descent.

Close to the hounds. There lay a huge wild boar In whose guide did divine Ulysses go, Within a thicket, where moist- b l owing winds Climb'd steepe Parnassus, on whose foreh ead grow Came not, nor in his brightness co uld the sun All sylvan off-springs round. And soone they rech't Pierce with h is beams the covert, nor the rain The Concaves, whence ayr's sounding vapors fetcht Pelt through, so closely grew the shrubs. The ground Their loud descent. As soone as any Sun Was heaped w ith sheddings of the withered leaves. From his lair he sprang And faced them, w ith the bristles on his neck Their Hounds before them on their searching Traile.

Upright, and flashing eyes. They neere, and ever eager to assaile, Ulysses brandishing a lengthfull Lance, Of whose first flight he long'd to prove the chance. The boar dies "with piercing cries amid the dust. And Bryant rejoiced when he got to a line he could silver over: "And sacred rivers flowing to the sea" 1 0. His H omer is Vergilian, or at least Wordsworthian. Pope, Fenton, and Broome give u s : Another Odyssey 39 An exile h ave I rold, with weeping eyes, Full twenty annu als suns in distant skies.

Here's the hunt as a Victorian painting by Landseer, the p rose version of Butcher and Lang: Now so soon as early Dawn shone forth, the rosy-fingered, they all went forth to the chase, the hounds and the sons of Autolycus, and with them went the goodly Odysseus. Now the sun was but Soon a s the morn, new rob'd in purp le light, just striking on the fields, and was come fo rth from the soft flowing stream of Pierced with her golden shafts th e drear of night, deep Ocean us.

Then the beaters reached th e glade of the woodland, and Ulysses, and his brave maternal race before them wen t the hounds tracking a scent, but behind came the sons of The young Autolyci, essay the ch ase. Autolycus, and among them goodly Odysseus followed close on the hounds, Parnassus, thick-perplexed with h o rrid shades, swaying a long spear. Thereby in a thick lair was a great boar lying, and With deep- mouth 'd hounds th e hunter-troop invades; through the coppice the force of the wet winds blew never, neither did What time the sun, from ocean's peaceful stream, Darts o ' er the lawn his horizontal beam.

Then the The pack impatient snuff th e tainted gale; tramp o f th e men's feet and of the dogs' came upon the boar, as they pressed The thorny wilds the woodmen fierce assail: on in the chase, and forth from his lair he sprang towards them with crest And, foremost of the train , his carne!

Ulysses wav'd, to rouse the savage war. Deep in the rough recesses of the wood, A lofty copse, the growth of ages, stood; Nor winter's boreal blast, nor thunderous shower, Nor solar ray , could pierce the shady bower. With wither'd foliage strew'd, a happy store! The warm pavilion of the dreadful boar. Rous ' d by the hounds' and hunters' mingling cries, The savage from his leafy shelter flies; With fiery glare his sangu i n e eye- balls shine, And bristles h i gh impal e his h o rrid chine. One would like to know how Pope imagined that one could make a fi fteen-foot spear out of a cherry branch; dolikhoskios " long of shadow" isn't all that h ard to make sense of.

But if one h as set out, Handel-like, with purple light fleeing from golden a rrows, a cherry-wood spear is no matter. In such a rendering, worthy of Salvator Rosa, all reality i s su bsumed in stage sets, costumes, and music; it is opera, and Italian opera at that. Odysseus's reproof is baritone and Rossini : Thy mi lky founts my infant lips have drain'd: And have the Fates thy babbling age ordain'd To violate th e l i fe th y youth sustain'd? A stag at bay is one who is either trapped or winded and turns in desperation to fight. Homer's boar greets his enemies at his door, disdainful of thei r folly.

He is a fearless and ill-tempered beast. Words to Butcher and Lang are invariably decorative, swatches of color all. So that dogs tramp. And when there is a paucity of adjectives for fringe, Butcher throws in a "yea" "many were the men whose towns h e saw and whose minds he learnt, yea" and Lang throws in a "lo" "lo, the dogs withhold him from his way". Butler hop ed for biscuit-plainness and sinew. Butler tidies up; he knows the difference between poetry and prose. Yet he remains respectful toward Homer's stock images and is not embarrassed by them.

He keeps "the child of morning, rosy-fingered Dawn" while his successor Colonel Law rence thinks it too literary and writes instead a pukka "at dawn. The descent might be plausibly ascribed to the revolt of the masses, the democratizing of literature. Another cause is just as plausibly a settled desire for gentility, for wistful sweetness, for taming. Both Butler and La'Yrence concocted Homers of their own imagining, and both wanted to see him as a literary bloke up to no discernible good; and both were men who deli ghted to do things which they protested weren't worth doing, while secretly hoping that they would be praised for ascribing virtues to Homer that we can no longer see.

Butler's novelistic Homer and Lawrence's bookish rescinder of ancient tales are masks that we don't care to bring down from the attic any more. The end of entropy is to fall into one's own source of energy and die. The death throes came with W. Rouse-the dri ft toward making Homer an old salt's yarn complete. Far from it. At the moment we are watching the resurgence of a new cycle: the relocation by Robert Fitzgerald and Christopher Logue of the translator's energies.

Homer the poet seems about to have his day again. Between Bryant and Fitzgerald we have had no Odyssey from a major English poet. If we are willing to discount Pope's Odyssey as a work by Pope and take it as a work by apprentices capa ble of constructing with the master's example and direction a poem in the manner of his Iliad, we can then note an even wider span: two Odysseys only from poets in the history of English literature, Chapman's and Fitzgerald's.

There are, at a guess, some fifty English Odysseys. Morris ought to have given us an Odyssey. His The Earthly Paradise, a neglected masterpiece of English literature sorely needing restoration to the curriculum, is poetry of the highest order and displays a narrative skill beautifu lly suited to the rendering of a Pre-Raphaelite Odyssey, a verbal equivalent of Burne-Janes's Circe. He gave us instead a verbal equivalent of Burne-Jones at his most turgid: Tennyson gone high and about to wriggle into the fanciest convolutions of Art Nouveau. The land of Morris's heart's desire was northern, a barbaric for est or Iceland or the Troll King's country.

The force that broke the palsied spell the Victorians and their German cousins cast over Homer was Samuel Butler. But the force flowed not from his plain-prose Iliad and Odyssey. It was an event that has not yet been assessed, but its consequences are scarcely hidden. From Butler come many gifts that found their way to the worktable of James Joyce.

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From Butler comes Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa's II Professore e Ia Sirena, a transmutation into fa ble of the essence of The Authoress of the Odyssey so pointed that it ought to be designated the highest moment of Homeric criticism in the twentieth century. But the century wanted Homer to be a ruin; romantic distance was the sole perspective from which it could appreciate the two poems. One by one Each the clear-toned herald's sceptre Took, and standing forth alone Spake his mind.

Two golden talents Lay before them, to requite Only h i m , among the Judges, Straightliest who should j u dge the right. Charles Doughty is careful to make his epic Dawn in Britain half Odyssey and half Iliad, like the Aeneid, with the Iliad getting the lion's share, as he had already written his Odyssey, the Travels in Arabia Deserta. Kazantzakis both translated the Odyssey into modern Greek and wrote a sequel. And at the heart of the complex will be the two Homeric poems.

The dust of Butler's demolition settles nicely, and in place. And P rofessor Latti m ore's Odyss ey, where does it fit in all of this? Like his Iliad, it will please professors and serve as a standard textbook, for to the professori al eye it is accurate. It fits almost word for word over the Greek text; it can be used as a crib by the student. Its architecture is this: there was an extensive wall made of Greek bri cks. It is the mode by which hopeful Christians assume the Bible was translated. And yet, and yet. This is a new Odyssey; it takes its place beside other Odysseys on the library shelf.

Not far down the shelf are the passages of the Iliad rendered by Christopher Logue, a miracle of the i magination. No one has; that age is gone. Ours, he sighs, is not a heroic culture. Yet this is the age of Eli ot and Pound and Joyce. The curious thing about so many of Professor Latti more's words and An other Odyssey 43 phrases is that they aren't very different from those of the Victori ans, or from those of the consci ously mannered Colonel Lawrence.

This neutrality is not total; the King James Bible rings in from time to time "his time of homecoming," " nor among his own people". Yet we must come across these lines in a style that by now can only be called Ageless Homeric Pastiche: My ch ild, what sort of word escaped your teeth ' s barrier' And: Then i n turn the goddess gray-eyed Athene answered him. Professor Lattimore is like a n engraver copy ing a painting.

The color of the original must everywhere appear i n his work as monochrome shades. This need not have been, but Professor Latti more chose to have it that way. He is not writing an English poe m; he is writing a translation. He does not relish the half-compliment that Pope had to suffer; he has not written a very pretty poem that must not be called Homer.

He has written a sprawling poem that imitates H omer along certain aesthetic lines. It is sometimes severely controlled, stately, grave; it is also a mussy poem, flaring out of control, losing contact with both Greek and English. If he stuck to his business, the poem would stick to its.

Why should it not? The method is logical but wildly i mprobable, for the simple reason that word s are not numbers, nor even signs. They are ani mals, alive and with a will of their own. Put together, they are invariably less or m o re than their sum. Words die in antisepsis. They assume the color of thei r new surroundings, like chameleons; they perversely develop echoes.

Words also live in history, aging, or proving immune to the bite of 44 The Geography of the Imagination time. A neutral vocabulary stands well against time and like the basic geometric figures never goes out of style. It is plausible that Professor Lattimore's Odyssey may weather our age and the next while translations more interesting to us at the moment will soon begin to sound like William Morri s. But posterity is one audience, and we here and now are another. Homer, in defiance of Heraclitus, remains. Both works trace a heritage of wisdom and tradition now obscured or abandoned. Yet both works are strenuously unified.

They both insist that economics must be a part of our literacy and a legitimate and pressing subject for the artist. A great captain, says Ruskin, is distinguished by Fortune's "conclusive stroke against him. But of Theseus, more later: we must turn to an engraving by Botticelli representing the seven works of mercy, "as completed by an eighth work in the center of all; namely, lending without interest, from the Mount of Pity accumulated by generous alms.

In the upper part of the diagram we see the cities which first built Mounts of Pity; Venice, chief of all-then Florence, Genoa, and Castruccio's Lucca; in the distance prays the monk of Ancona, who first taught, inspired by Heaven, of such wars with usurers. Theseus's stamp is common in our world, in, for example, the Greek fret we can see everywhere.

It was, however, the Greek life-symbol, and ours. The maiden all forlorn will sta? And Jack the builder neatly equals Daedalus, "Jack of all trades. Coins of Cnossos bore the symbol of the labyrinth. Symbols are natural shapes elevated to significance. The Greek fret existed before Theseus, but he gave it the meaning of a labyrinth.

The spiral is the shape a worm draws with its coiling bore, a fern with its bud, and a periwinkle with its shell. Completed in the Ionic capital, and arrested in the fending point of the acanthus in the Co1Th e Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, 2nd ed. In Athenian work the spiral mi rrors wind and waves; in Gothic, the serpent Satan. But Satan is a power of the air, as in the story of job and the story of Buonconte di Montefeltro in Dante.

Ruskin next compares labyrinths, coins, modes of justice, judges of the dead, until he can demonstrate that Dante's hell is a labyrinth, until he can triumphantly identify the Minotaur with greed, lust, and usury, like Ezra Pound, whose symbol for usury is Dante's monster of deceit, Geryone: "Hie est hyperusura. His Ariadne was named Rose, whose name he finds, and conceals, everywhere in the text of Fors.

A terrible beauty, Yeats said, was born into the world. Did Pound know Fors? He at least knew Ruskin's method, and called it by the Greek word paideuma. Yeats's last prose work, On the Boiler, was a conscious attempt to repeat Fors Clavigera. Between his house and Olson's there is an inlet in which lay a sunken battleship completely covered with Gloucester sewage.

The symbolism of this pleased Olson immensely. James Joyce certainly knew Ruskin's Fors , for the doubling of the labyrinth as the house that jack built became a Joycean mode of building symbols. Professor Herbert Marshall McLuhan has recently announced his discovery that the fifteen stories in Dubliners correspond symbolically to the fifteen books of Ovid's Metamorphoses. To find the outlines of Joyce's symbolic structures it is always best to follow the rules of symmetry. The tale of Daedalus, for instance, is midmost Ovid's text.

And if you look, you will find nothing overt about Daedalus in "A Little Cloud" unless you want to see Little Chandler as a man trapped in an emotional labyrinth, tempted by Gallaher to fly away, 'Letters to the E d itor, Th e James Joy Vol. The House That Jack Built 49 or allusio ns to great height and molten wax in the title and the name Chandler. You will, however, find phrases from "The House that Jack Built," the word malt and the phrase crump led horn.

In the spiral labyrinth of The Cattle of the Sun chapter in Ulysses you will find an elaborate web of a llusions to Daedalus and the labyrinth, and an equally elaborate web of allusion to "The House that Jack Built.

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  • Finnegans Wake i s the house Jack Joyce built, but it is a reading of the Old Testament, the house that jacob built, and of the New Testament, the house that the carpenter jack Christ built. It is a world of involuted meaning like the house that jack Ruskin built, Ruskin being the Shaun to Charles Dodgson's Shem. The Wake dreams through ultimate absurdities of symbols, such as our dreams make us suffer, and through the tragic limitations of language which imprison us when we would be meaningful, and betray us, whatever our caution.

    Contemplating the sonorous midden of the Wake, William Carlos Williams decided to make an American model. He singled out a river even filthier than the Liffey, the yellow Passaic, and a New Jersy town with a name half Latin, pater, and half English, son; in America our parentage is European; and as Pound's Cantos begin-like H. In a sense, Joyce is on one side of that colon, Williams on the other.

    Sian Pavel Tchelitchew. Willi ams met him in 1 and saw the massive canvas called "Phenomena" in progress. Anthony, with monsters of all sorts, monsters. Williams, a pediatrician, observed to the painter, are a l l tera tologiCally exact. Williams saw the point, and took away with him the courage to write about the decay of an American city as the gradual Th e Geogra phy of the Imagination 50 metamorphosis of humanity into monstrosity. He ordered the original plan of Paterson with the four classical elements, earth, air, fire, and water, and saw in their flux a tragic entropy that nevertheless fell back into itself to begin again.

    And a monster of monsters, the atomic bomb which, incredibly, its mushroom cloud shaped like a skull, appears in the deep background of Tchelitchew' s "Phenomena," painted nine years before Hiroshima -the atomic bomb and the radioactivity of matter gave Williams his sense that the world is regenerative in a way we had not expected. The Minotaur may, after all, be the heart of the labyrinth. This picture resolves, if you look carefully enough, into a bull's face and into genitals male and female.

    Just last month Louis Zukofsky, our greatest living poet, finished his long poem "A " that he began fifty years ago. It is a dance of imagery that follows the laws of Orphic Daedalus. It ties and unties knots in a harmony of emblems the way Ben Jonson's Daedalus instructs his dancers to do in the " Masque of Pleasure Reconciled to Virtue" : Then , as all actions of mankind Are but a laborinth, or maze, So let your daunces be entw i n'd Yet not perplex men , unto gaze.

    But measur'd, and so nu merous too, As men may read each act you doo. We beholders are vo in lved in an explicatio; we unfold to read. His images pun with a playful energy we have not seen since Shakespeare. He has made a pun in English on every Latin word of Catullus; he has made sawhorses in a Brooklyn street emblems of the letter A gallop with manes made of the Latin word manes and with heads made of the number 7.

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    He has made all of his work tributary to the poem "A. To see the beauty of "A," we must know the maze-like commentary on Shakespeare called Bottom. The Cantos are a maze by plan and in subj ect. The second canto does not follow from the first, but takes up anew; and so do the third, fourth, and fi fth. At LXXIV the poem discloses a direction unplanned by the poet, and the last three divisions of the epic are meditations on ways of getting out of the labyrinth of history into the clear air of certainty.

    If the Victorians could see only unhinged frivolity in da Vinci's pages on flight, they were very much alive to other mythological symbols. Joyce in Dubliners depicts the city as a labyrinth including, as we have seen, Daedalus the craftsman under the name of Jack. Ulysses is a labyrinth within a labyrintr,. He would have had the scrupulous, the piercing eye of Wittgenstein, who was also architect, engineer, craftsman, and aviator. He had, as the myths tell us, the sudden temper and inept solicitude for apprentices that Leonardo himself displayed, da Vinci who was also architect, engineer, craftsman, and an aviator who designed a bat of lathes and struts in which he hoped to swim through the Tuscan air.

    He would have had the laconic inwardness and heroic alertness of Wilbur Wright, who was also architect, engineer. Ezra Pound had just begun a long poem on which he would write for sixty-seven years, and never finish. Brancusi' s portrait of Joyce is a spi ral labyrinth an ear. He kept it.

    The Minotaur enters Picasso's work in 1 to become a constant. ICOn thereafter. For the rest of his life, for another forty years, he would meditate on the Minotaur. Picasso's Minotaur is a symbol of creative energy, chthonic inspiration, the prehuman past, the animal in man; and our century has maintained an argument in its art as to the harmony between our bestiality and our humanity. What beast is there at the center of the labyrinth? It is sex embracing death, said Freud. It is, said Ezra Pound, the moth called over the mountain, the bull running upon the sword.

    It is the dolphin leaping in its element, said Yeats. Not until his old age did Picasso turn to the daedalian part of our myth. Commissioned to do a mural for the UNESCO building in Paris, he chose the fall of Icarus for his subject, making Icarus's body out of lines he had seen in prehistoric caves in the Dordogne, the raised arms that can be traced through stone-age art to the Egyptian hieroglyph for praise, spindly and uncertain lines with which the earliest artists drew man's body as distinct from the masterful lines and religious awe with which they drew their splendid ani mals.

    The fi rst mural is in a museum, the second and third in a church, the "Fall of Icarus" in a building that ad ministrates educational programs. Like his other murals, it is unsigned, the sole works to which he did not put his name, as if to say that words have nothing to do with pure emblems, as if to remind himself, triumphantly and in a veritable temple of words, that he never mastered the alphabet. The uppermost zone shows in twelve divisions the triumphs of the Olympian gods, together with allegorical figures signifying the virtues and skills over which the gods preside.

    The middle zone shows in twelve panels the signs of the zodiac and the Decan symbols, figures appropriate to the three groups of ten days that make up the month over which each sign of the zodiac rules. Hence each of the middle panels contains four figures, or groups of figures, one for the zodiac, one for each Decan. The bottom zone, also in twelve parts, depicts the life of Ferrara in the time of Borsa d'Este, who figures in the first thirty cantos as a symbol of good will and just government.

    Some years ago I had the privilege of helping Ezra Pound move his effects from one house to another in Rapallo. With a Max Ernst in one hand and the poet's Spartan cot on my head "Ecco if professore di greco, " sang out a jovial Rapallese, c on if letto del poeta sulla testa! As the. And, as Joyce. Basically three kinds of houses appear in the epic: the House of Hades : the phrase i s Homer s or repository of history , tradition, and myth, the houses of great fa md1es Italian, Chinese, American , and the "quiet houses" Ithaca , "thy quiet house at Torcell o," the mountain retreats , as Estate It is a la.

    The clue to this l a by ri n t h sub j ects , m od1f ymg in structure, a zigz ag of. The desc ent i n t o hell guid e uag lang the Ren aiss anc e, wit h the ph rased b y a Lat in h and in to our cars. Ho use of Cir ce as we beg m, to go orp hic We hav e left the me tam Pro teu s, who ert B row nin g fades into dom us Hades. Odyssey as wel l , and of Th e It is a lso Confucian, i mplying a reverence for an cestors and past wisdom brought forward , a philosoph ical balance in the midst of turmoil, a return to a spiritual h omeland.

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    We have many bri lliant read i n gs of Pound; he is as much a magnet and a battlefield now as he was for more than half a century. Their art h a s changed a l l our p evious concepts of art, and much of our concept of reality. Son parodying "The House that Jack Built. There are flying Daidaloi and falling lkaroi on all pages of A Portrait. When, in Ulysses, people make change, with money, a metamorphosis occurs. But who has begun to see that The Cantos begin with a descent into Hell, a transformation involving wine, and a child amid ruins, as in a Renaissance nativity scene?

    And are about the driving of moneychangers from the temple? When can we begin to see the parallels between The Cantos and Ulysses, both rewritings of the Odyssey? When shall we appreciate that the words in which both works are written are as formulaic as Homer's? Joyce accepted Homer's formulae in the comic mode, as cliche, and parodied all the English there is; Pound understood the formulae to be words shaped by masters : all those quotations are not quotations and they us ually turn out to be misquotations, from memory, if you look them up ; they are the formulaic gists of ideas in maximum verbal focus.

    Homer, as best we know, did not invent a version of the wanderings and return of Odysseus. From the best phrases he knew, all tried and tested by singers over the centuries, he took the firmest and finest, dialect be hanged, and built them into a strong, incredibly elegant symmetry.

    Marriage Related Astrology

    When shall we begin to see Joyce's radical invention, the interior monologue, random phrases and capri cious images seemingly, though held firmly in a logic of association, correspondence , and symbol , as an invention parallel to, and strangely like, Pound's radical invention, the ideogram? Marriage Related Astrology cardinal modality astrology may 9 astrology born june 11 horoscope horoscope according 2 date of birth cardinal modality astrology september 21 astrology hitler sign astrology sunday telegraph sydney horoscopes astrological glyphs meanings indian astrologer in edison nj mrityu yoga vedic astrology chinese new year horoscope for aries Numerology is one of the fascinating sciences with the help of which one can seek to elucidate basic drives and impulses about an individual by translating the details like the date of birth and name of that person into their numerical astrology related websites.

    To start using this tool, head to settings- general- usage- battery usage to see which apps use the most battery life. Very few people are allowed into the inner sanctum of scorpio; Instead they prefer to watch and wait until they are comfortable exposing their secrets of which there are many. When i acknowledged that i am traveling--in this moment in philadelphia--and acknowledged it's what i love doing, all of a sudden i was out of the gloom and feeling terrific. That's the libra generation. Viata le rezerva sansa extinderii propriului suflet , daca ei il vor iubi sincer pe celalalt, macar atat cat se iubesc pe ei insisi.

    Nativii cu Nodul Nord in Balanta trebuie sa perceapa armonia sociala interna, care ii va ajuta sa-si indrepte atentia catre ceilalti si sa inceteze a se mai pune pe ei insisi pe primul loc. Important pentru nativii cu Nodul Nord in Balanta este sa fie, pur si simplu, ei insisi. Orientandu-se catre sustinerea celuilalt, ei se vor detasa de defectele proprii si, cu vremea, vor reusi sa si le corecteze. Nativilor cu Nodul Nord in Balanta le este sete sa fie permanent aprobati si inclusi in sfera celuilalt, traind o reala relaxare si fericire ori de cate ori ceilalti ii hranesc cu iubire.

    Conteaza aici metodele pe care le utilizeaza pentru a capta atentia oamenilor : fie se simt atrasi in competitie, fie au realizari in exces, fie detin initiative pentru care nu se consulta cu nimeni. Capacitatea de a construi relatii este, de fapt, talentul incredibil al acestor nativi , dar ei nu sunt constienti de el. Ceea ce vor este corect, dar metodele nu sunt adecvate. In momentul in care nativii cu Nodul Nord in Balanta inteleg mecanismele unei relatii, ei devin experti in acest domeniu, deoarece au diplomatie si o sensibilitate aparte.

    In aceasta viata, nativii cu Nodul Nord in Balanta trebuie sa invete rabdarea. Viata lor se va desfasura in modul cel mai fericit daca ii includ si pe ceilalti in planul lor. La un anumit nivel, acesti nativi stiu ca aceasta viata sta sub semnul asocierii si, de aceea, ei cauta, intr-un mod activ, un asociat. In realizarea obiectivelor personale, succesul este asigurat daca se asociaza cu cineva. A pune pe primul loc atentia si consideratia acordate celuilalt reprezinta chestiuni esentiale pentru nativii cu Nodul Nord in Balanta care doresc sa aiba relatii reusite.

    Ei obtin mari succese in calitate de consultanti de afaceri, psihologi, profesori, antrenori sau orice alt rol de acest gen. Nativii cu Nodul Nord in Balanta trebuie sa invete sa fie sensibili si deschisi fata de punctele de vedere ale celorlalti, invatand totodata sa-si impartaseasca sentimentele si temerile. Ei nu-si accepta vulnerabilitatile si considera ca nimeni nu trebuie sa le cunoasca slabiciunile. O alta chestiune pe care o au de invatat este cum sa ajunga la un grad mai mare de intimitate, intimitatea decurgand direct din sensibilitatea fata de celalalt si din curajul de a-si dezvalui propria vulnerabilitate.

    Intr-o relatie de mare intimitate vor evolua foarte repede. Atunci cand permit altora sa le cunoasca temerile, curajul lor innascut ii inspira pe toti ceilalti sa faca legaturi mai profunde. Nativii cu Nodul Nord in Balanta nu au simtul muncii in echipa , ei vor sa-si organizeze singuri munca si nu au rabdare cu cei carora le trebuie doua sau trei zile pentru a face un lucru pe care ei il fac intr-o zi — si inca foarte bine! Dar, o alta lectie, este sa-si realizeze obiectivele muncind in echipa , intrucat nativii cu Nodul Nord in Balanta detin capacitatea incredibila de a da putere celorlalti si de a vedea, in cazul fiecaruia dintre membrii echipei, cui anume i se cuvine mai multa incredere.

    Asa cum in viata lor intima, pe primul loc se afla relatia personala, tot astfel, in viata sociala, necesitatea principala a echipei tot pe locul intai trebuie pusa. Ei trebuie sa ia in considerare intotdeauna, in primul rand, ceea ce este mai bine pentru echipa. Aceasta va face ca fiecare sa renunte la individualism, amplificand sentimentele pozitive de interdependenta.

    Prin asociere, acesti nativi isi gasesc echilibrul in raporturile cu ceilalti si pot avea acces la anumite parti ale personalitatii lor care, altfel, ar fi ramas inaccesibile. Alaturi de un asociat, viata nu mai este o truda, ci un schimb pozitiv de energie, care face din descoperirea si realizarea de sine un demers mai usor si mai vesel pentru amandoi.